Howard J. Shaffer, PhD, CAS

   

Dr. Howard Jeffrey Shaffer is the Morris E. Chafetz Associate Professor of Psychiatry in the Field of Behavioral Sciences at Harvard Medical School; in addition, he is the Director of the Division on Addiction at Harvard-affiliated Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School Teaching Hospital. During recent years, Dr. Shaffer has served as principal or co-principal investigator on many government, foundation, and industry sponsored research projects around the world. Dr. Shaffer is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association. Currently, Dr. Shaffer is focusing on investigative and educational activities associated with addiction treatment, a syndromal approach to addiction, the public health correlates of gambling, and the epidemiology of psychiatric co-morbidity among repeat DUI offenders.

In addition to an active private practice, Dr. Shaffer consults internationally to a variety of organizations in business, education, human services, and government. Dr. Shaffer is licensed as a clinical psychologist in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; the National Register of Health Care Providers in Psychology also certifies him. Dr. Shaffer is the founder of the American Academy of Health Care Providers in the Addictive Disorders. The Academy represents the first international credentialing body for clinicians working with multiple expressions of addiction.

Dr. Shaffer served on the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Committee on the Social and Economic Impacts of Pathological Gambling. His professional appointments also have included consultation to the National Institutes of Health, The National Cancer Institute, The National Council on Marijuana and Health, The Icelandic Ministry of Health and Social Security, The Massachusetts Council on Compulsive Gambling, the Tung Wah Hospital Group, and The Massachusetts Departments of Mental and Public Health.

Dr. Shaffer’s major research interests include the social perception of addiction and disease, the philosophy of science, impulse control regulation and compulsive behaviors, adolescent gambling, addiction treatment outcome, responsible gambling, and the natural history of addictive behaviors. Dr. Shaffer has written extensively about the treatment of addictive behaviors and the nature of addiction, including more than 200 chapters, journal articles, and reviews. He also has published more than 120 newspaper articles, and 22 books or monographs. Dr. Shaffer’s most recent books include the previously mentioned two volume Choice awarded APA Addiction Syndrome Handbook with co-editors Drs. Debi A. LaPlante and Sarah E. Nelson, Harvard Health Publications’ Overcoming Addiction, and with co-authors Ryan Martin, John H. Kleschinsky, and Liz Neporent, Change Your Gambling, Change Your Life: Strategies for Managing Gambling and Improving Your Finances, Relationships and Health from Jossey-Bass. His other books include the seminal Quitting Cocaine: The Struggle Against Impulse with Dr. Stephanie Jones, Compulsive Gambling: Theory, Research & Practice, edited with Dr. Blase Gambino, Sharon Stein, and Thomas Cummings, Peers Helping Peers: A Handbook for Secondary School Peer Counselor/Educators, and Futures at Stake: Youth, Gambling, and Society. He is the past editor of several journals: The Psychology of Addictive Behaviors; The Journal of Gambling Studies and a founder and past associate editor of The Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Dr. Shaffer serves as a member of many editorial boards and is an ad hoc reviewer for many journals including the New England Journal of Medicine and the Archives of General Psychiatry.

Dr. Shaffer’s research, writing, and teaching have shaped how the health care field conceptualizes and treats the full range of addictive behaviors. His Syndrome Model of addiction has gained broad acceptance, influencing how we think about both behavioral and substance related addiction. He has received many awards, including the 2010 American Psychological Association, Division 50, award for “Outstanding Contributions to Advancing the Understanding of Addictions,” the 2010 Ira Grief Community Partnership award from the St. Francis House Moving Ahead Program. During 2011, the Century Council honored him as one of “20 People to Watch” for his work on driving under the influence. During 2015, he received the Lifetime Research Award from the National Council on Problem Gambling.

Current Projects

Principal Investigator: An Evidence-based Approach to Understanding Fantasy Sports Activities

Principal Investigator: Assessing Responsible Gambling in Massachusetts

Principal Investigator: Clinical Research & Training Collaboration between the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Integrated Center for Addiction Prevention and Treatment (ICAPT) and the Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance

Principal Investigator:  Developing a Computerized Assessment and Referral System (CARS)

Updating and Refining Problem Gambling Treatment Guidelines for Treatment & Practice

Selected Publications

In Press

Shaffer, P. M., & Shaffer, H. J. (In Press). Reconsidering Addiction as a Syndrome: One Disorder with Multiple Expressions. In H. Pickard & S. Ahmed (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction. London: Routledge.

Shaffer, H. J., Gray, H. M., Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A. (In Press). Technology, the Internet, and gambling: How the medium can facilitate addiction, adaptation, and intervention. In D. Faust, Faust, K., & Potenza, N. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Digital Technologies and Mental Health: Second edition (Second ed., Vol. 1, pp. 135-142). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Zhao, Y., Marchica, L., Derevensky, J. L., & Shaffer, H. J. (In Press). The scope, focus and types of gambling policies among Canadian colleges and universities. Canadian Psychology.

2016

Ladouceur, R., Shaffer, P., Blaszczynski, A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2016). Responsible gambling: A synthesis of empirical evidenceAddiction Research & Theory. doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2016.1245294

Lee, T. K., Roh, S., Han, J. H., Park, S. J., Soh, M. A., Han, D. H., & Shaffer, H. J. (2016). The relationship of problematic internet use with dissociation among South Korean Internet users. Psychiatry Research, 241, 66-71. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.109

Shaffer, H. J., Ladouceur, R., Blaszczynski, A., & Whyte, K. (2016). Extending the RENO model: Clinical and ethical applications. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 86(3), 297-309. doi:10.1037/ort0000123

Shaffer, H. J., & Shaffer, P. M. (2016). Behavioral addiction. In H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Mental Health (Second ed., Vol. 1, pp. 135-142). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

Shaffer, H. J., Tom, M. A., & Braverman, J. (2016). When criticizing others it is helpful to focus on actual behavior: A comment about Auer and Griffiths. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-016-9667-x

Tom, M. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2016). Devil in the details: A critical review of “Theoretical Loss”. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(3), 865-875. doi:10.1007/s10899-015-9584-4

2015

Blaszcynski, A., Collins, P., Fong, D., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., Shaffer, H. J.,…Venisse, J. L. (2015). Il gioco responsabile: principi generali e requisiti di minima. Medicina delle Dipendenze – Italian Journal of the Addictions, 1-6.

Braverman, J., Tom, M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2015). Tilting at windmills: a comment on Auer and Griffiths. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(2), 359-366. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9428-z

Collins, P., Blaszcynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Shaffer, H. J., Fong, D., & Venisse, J. L. (2015). Responsible gambling: Conceptual considerations. Gaming Law Review and Economics, 19(8), 594-599.

Gray, H. M., Jonsson, G. K., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2015). Expanding the study of internet gambling behavior: trends within the Icelandic lottery and sportsbetting platform. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(2), 483-499. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9427-0

Gray, H. M., Shaffer, P. M., Nelson, S. E., & Shaffer, H. J. (2015). Changing social networks among homeless individuals: A prospective evaluation of a job- and life-skills training program. Community Mental Health Journal. doi:10.1007/s10597-014-9817-5

Gray, H. M., Tom, M. A., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2015). Using opinions and knowledge to identify natural groups of gambling employees. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(4), 1753-1766. doi:10.1007/s10899-014-9490-1

Nelson, S. E., Belkin, K., LaPlante, D. A., Bosworth, L., & Shaffer, H. J. (2015). A prospective study of psychiatric comorbidity and recidivism among repeat DUI offenders. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 3(1), 8-17.

2014

Afifi, T. O., LaPlante, D. A., Taillieu, D. D., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Gambling involvement: Considering frequency of play and the moderating effects of gender and age. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 238-294. doi:10.1007/s11469-013-9452-3

Braverman, J., Tom, M. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Accuracy of self-reported versus actual online gambling wins and losses. Psychological Assessment, 26(3), 865-877. doi:10.1037/a0036428

Lee, T. K., Lee C. K., Lee H. M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Comparing stress perception and leisure type preference between South Korean smoking and nonsmoking casino employees. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(5), 618-628. doi:10.1007/s11469-014-9495-0

Planzer, S., Gray, H. M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37(2), 217-229. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2013.11.002

Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Foreword: Science, public policy and law: Considering the case of gambling. In S. Planzer (Ed.), Empirical Views on European Gambling Law and Addiction. Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York: Springer.

Shaffer, H. J., & Shaffer, P. M. (2014). Psychiatric epidemiology, nosology, and treatment: Considering Internet gambling. Psychiatric Annals, 44(8), 371-378.

Tom, M. A., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Does Pereto rule Internet gambling? Problems among the “Vital Few” & “Trivial Many”. Journal of Gambling Business & Economics, 8(1), 73-100.

2013

Braverman, J., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & Shaffer, H. J. (2013). Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(3), 868-877. doi:10.1037/a0032818

LaPlante, D. A., Afifi, T. O., & Shaffer, H. J. (2013). Games and gambling involvement among casino patrons. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(2), 191-203. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9307-z

Schuman-Olivier, Z., Hoeppner, B. B., Weiss, R. D., Borodovsky, J., Shaffer, H. J., & Albanese, M. J. (2013). Benzodiazepine use during buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence: clinical and safety outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 580-586. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.04.006

Shaffer, H. J. (2013). Foreward: Gambling ghosts, shadows, and taxonomies. In D. Richard, Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Disordered Gambling. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Shaffer, H. J., & LaPlante, D. A. (2013). Considering a critique of pathological gambling prevalence research. Addiction Research and Theory, 21(1), 12-14. doi:10.3109/16066359.2012.715223

2012

Albanese, M. J., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). Addiction: The genesis and evolution of an idea and its consequences. In H. J. Shaffer, LaPlante, D. A., & Nelson, S. E. (Eds.),The APA Addiction Syndrome Handbook (Vol. 1, Foundations, Influences, and Expressions of Addiction, pp. 3-25). Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press.

The APA Addiction Syndrome Handbook Vol. 1, Foundations, Influences, and Expressions of Addiction. (2012). Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press.

The APA Addiction Syndrome Handbook Vol. 2, Recovery, Prevention, and Other Issues. (2012). Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Braverman, J., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). How do gamblers start gambling: identifying behavioural markers for high-risk Internet gambling. European Journal of Public Health, 22(2), 273-278. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp232

Gray, H. M., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). Behavioral characteristics of Internet gamblers who trigger corporate responsible gambling interventions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 527-535. doi:10.1037/a0028545

LaBrie, R. A., Peller, A. J., LaPlante, D. A., Bernhard, B., Harper, A., Schrier, T., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). A brief self-help toolkit intervention for gambling problems: A randomized multisite trial. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(2), 278-289. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01157.x

LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). The bwin.party Division on Addiction research collaborative: Challenges for the ‘normal science’ of Internet gambling. In R. J. Williams, Wood, R.T., & Parke, J. (Eds.), Routledge International Handbook of Internet Gambling (pp. 161-179). New York: Routledge.

LaPlante, D. A., Gray, H. M., LaBrie, R. A., Kleschinsky, J. H., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). Gaming industry employees’ responses to responsible gambling training: A public health imperative. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(2), 171-191. doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9255-z

Nelson, S. E., Gray, H. M., Maurice, I. R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2012). Moving ahead: Evaluation of a work-skills training program for homeless adults. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(6), 711-722. doi:10.1007/s10597-012-9490-5

Shaffer, H. J., Martin, R. J., Kleschinsky, J. H., & Neporent, L. (2012). Change Your Gambling, Change Your Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

2011

Blaszczynski, A., Collins, P., Fong, D., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., Shaffer, H. J., . . . Venisse, J. L. (2011). Responsible gambling: General principles and minimal requirements. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(4), 565-573. doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9214-0

Braverman, J., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2011). A taxometric analysis of actual Internet sports gambling behavior. Psychological Assessment, 23(1), 234-244. doi:10.1037/a0021404

Gray, H. M., LaPlante, D. A., Bannon, B. L., Ambady, N., & Shaffer, H. J. (2011). Development and validation of the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test (AI-IAT). Addictive Behaviors, 36(9), 919-926. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.05.003

LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2011). Identifying behavioral markers of disordered Internet sports gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 19(1), 56-65. doi:10.3109/16066359.2010.512106

LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2011). Disordered gambling, type of gambling and gambling involvement in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2007. European Journal of Public Health, 21(4), 532-537. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp177

Shaffer, H. J. (2011). Foreward: Out of the shadows but still hidden. In D. Derevensky, Shek, T. L., & Merrick, J. (Eds.), Youth Gambling: The Hidden Addiction (pp. xi-xv). Berlni: Walter De Gruyter.

Shaffer, H. J., & Martin, R. (2011). Disordered gambling: Etiology, trajectory, and clinical considerations. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 483-510. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-040510-143928

2010

Albanese, M. J., Nelson, S. E., Peller, A. J., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). Bipolar disorder as a risk factor for repeat DUI behavior. Journal of Affective Disorders, 121(3), 253-257. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.015

Gebauer, L., LaBrie, R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). Optimizing DSM-IV-TR classification accuracy: A brief biosocial screen for detecting current gambling disorders among gamblers in the general household population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(2), 82-90.

LaPlante D. A., Gray, H. M., Bosworth, L., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). Thirty years of lottery public health research: methodological strategies and trends. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(2), 301-329. doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9185-1

Linnet, J., Gebauer, L., Shaffer, H. J., Mouidsen, K., & Moller, A. (2010). Experienced poker players differ from inexperienced poker players in estimation bias and decision bias. Journal of Gambling Issues, 24, 86-100.

Martin, R. J., Usdan, S., Nelson, S., Umstattd, M. R., LaPlante, D., Perko, M., & Shaffer, H. (2010). Using the theory of planned behavior to predict gambling behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(1), 89-97. doi:10.1037/a0018452

Nelson, S. E., Kleschinsky, J. H., LaBrie, R. A., Kaplan, S., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). One decade of self exclusion: Missouri casino self-excluders four to ten years after enrollment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(1), 129-144. doi:10.1007/s10899-009-9157-5

Peller, A. J., Najavits, L. M., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). PTSD among a treatment sample of repeat DUI offenders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(4), 468-473. doi:10.1002/jts.20550

Schuman-Olivier, Z., Albanese, M., Nelson, S. E., Roland, L., Puopolo, F., Klinker, L., & Shaffer, H. J. (2010). Self-treatment: Illicit buprenorphine use by opioid-dependent treatment seekers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 39(1), 41-50. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2010.03.014

Shaffer, H. J., Peller, A. J., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & LaBrie, R. A. (2010). Toward a paradigm shift in Internet gambling research: From opioid and self-report to actual behavior. Addiction Research & Theory, 18(3), 270-283.

2009

Boudreau, A., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). Towards DSM-V: “Shadow Syndrome” symptom patterns among pathological gamblers. Addiction Research & Theory, 17(4), 406-419.

Kleschinsky, J. H., Bosworth, L. B., Nelson, S. E., Walsh, E. K., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). Persistence pays off: Follow-up methods for difficult-to-track longitudinal samples. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(5), 751-761.

LaPlante, D. A., Kleschinkey, J. H., LaBrie, R. A., Nelson, S. E., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). Sitting at the virtual poker table: A prospective epidemiological study of actual Internet poker gambling behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(3), 711-717.

Nelson, S. E., Gebauer, L., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). Gambling problem symptom patterns and stability across individual and timeframe. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(3), 523-533. doi:10.1037/a0016053

Xuan, Z., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). How do gamblers end gambling: Longitudinal analysis of Internet gambling behaviors prior to account closure due to gambling related problems. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(2), 239-252.

2008

Blaszcynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Informed choice and gambling: Principles for consumer protection. Journal of Gambling Business & Economics, 2(1), 103-118.

Broda, A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., Bosworth, L. B., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Virtual harm reduction efforts for Internet gambling: Effects of deposit limits on actual Internet sports gambling behavior. Harm Reduction Journal, 5, 27. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-5-27

Kessler, R. C., Hwang, I., LaBrie, R., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Winters, K. C., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 38(9), 1351-1360. doi:10.1017/S0033291708002900

LaBrie, R. A., Kaplan, S. A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Inside the virtual casino: A prospective longitudinal study of actual Internet casino gambling. European Journal of Public Health, 18(4), 410-416. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckn021

LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Stability and progression of disordered gambling: Lessons from longitudinal studies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(1), 52-60.

LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., Odegaard, S. S., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Substance and psychiatric disorders among men and women repeat driving under the influence offenders who accept a treatment-sentencing option. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(2), 209-217.

LaPlante, D. A., Schumann, A., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Population trends in Internet sports gambling. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 2399-2414.

Lee, T. K., LaBrie, R. A., Grant, J. E., Kim, S.W., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). The structure of pathological gambling among Korean gamblers: A cluster and factor analysis of clinical and demographic characteristics. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(4), 551-563. doi:10.1007/s11469-007-9082-8

Lee, T. K., LaBrie, R. A., Rhee, H. S., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems. Occupational Medicine: Oxford Journals, 58(3), 191-197. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqn025

Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., Schumann, A., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Real limits in the virtual world: Self-limiting behavior of Internet gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(4), 463-477. doi:10.1007/s10899-008-9106-8 

Peller, A. J., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). Parameters for safer gambling behavior: Examining the empirical research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(4), 519-534. doi:10.1007/s10899-008-9097-5

2007

LaBrie, R. A., Browne, C., Christensen, D. E., Greenwood, K. L., Straus, J. H., Garmon, M. S., . . . Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Implementation of a consumer-directed approach in behavioral health care: Problems and prospects. Psychiatric Services, 58(3), 300-302. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.58.3.300

LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., Albanese, M., Peller, A. J., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Criminality and continued DUI offense: Criminal typologies and recidivism among repeat offenders. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 25(4), 603-614. doi:10.1002/bsl.769 

LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., Schumann, A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Assessing the playing field: A prospective longitudinal study of Internet sports gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(3), 347-362. doi:10.1007/s10899-007-9067-3

LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., Christensen, D. E., Greenwood, K. L., Straus, J. H.,…Shaffer, H. J. (2007). The interdependence of behavioural and somatic health: Implications for conceptualizing health and measuring treatment outcomes. International Journal of Integrated Care, 7, e10. 

LaBrie, R. A., Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., Caro, G., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Missouri Casino self-excluders: Distributions across time and space. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2), 231-243. doi:10.1007/s10899-006-9037-1 

LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Gambling with adolescent health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(5), 387-389. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.02.009 

LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Understanding the influence of gambling opportunities: Expanding exposure models to include adaptation. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 616-623. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.77.4.616 

Nelson, T. F., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Stanton, M., Shaffer, H. J., & Wechsler, H. (2007). Sports betting and other gambling in athletes, fans, and other college students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(4), 271-283. doi:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599425 

Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., Peller, A. J., LaBrie, R. A., Caro, G., & Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Implementation of a computerized psychiatric assessment tool at a DUI treatment facility: A case example. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 34(5), 489-493. doi:10.1007/s10488-007-0125-z 

Shaffer, H. J. (2007). Considering the unimaginable: Challenges to accepting self-change or natural recovery from addiction (Foreword). In H. Klingemann & L. Carter-Sobell (Eds.), Promoting Self-Change from Addictive Behaviors: Practical Implications for Policy, Prevention, and Treatment (second ed., pp. ix-xiii). New York: Springer.

Shaffer, H. J., & LaPlante, D. A. (2007). The treatment of gambling related disorders. In G. A. Marlatt, & Donovan, D. M. (Eds.), Relapse prevention (Second ed., pp. 276-332). New York: Guildord. 

Shaffer, H. J., Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., LaBrie, R. A., Albanese, M., & Caro, G. (2007). The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders accepting a treatment sentencing option. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 795-804. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.795 

2006

LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2006). Men & women playing games: Gender and the gambling preferences of Iowa gambling treatment program participants. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(1), 65-80. doi:10.1007/s10899-005-9003-3 

Nelson, S. E., LaPlante, D. A., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2006). The proxy effect: Gender and gambling problem trajectories of Iowa gambling treatment program participants. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(2), 221-240. doi:10.1007/s10899-006-9012-x 

Shaffer, H. J., Stanton, M. V., & Nelson, S. E. (2006). Trends in gambling studies research: Quantifying, categorizing, and describing citations. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(4), 427-442. doi:10.1007/s10899-006-9023-7 

2005

Ladouceur, R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2005). Treating problem gamblers: Working towards empirically supported treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(1), 1-4. doi:10.1007/s10899-004-1915-9

Odegaard, S. S., Peller, A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2005). Addiction as syndrome. Paradigm, 9(3), 12-13, 22. 

Shaffer, H. J. (2005). From disabling to enabling the public interest: natural transitions from gambling exposure to adaptation and self-regulation. Addiction, 100(9), 1227-1230; discussion 1235. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01200.x

Shaffer, H. J., & Freed H. J. (2005). The assessment of gambling related disorders. In D. M. M. Donovan, & Marlatt G. A. (Eds.), Assessment of Addictive Behaviors (Second ed., pp. 334-391). New York: Guilford.

Shaffer, H. J., Donato, A. N., LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., & LaPlante, D. A. (2005). The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(1), 1. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-2-1 

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Kidman, R. C., & Donato, A. N. (2005). The Iowa Gambling Treatment Program: Treatment outcomes for a follow-up sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(1), 59-73. doi:10.1007/s10899-004-1924-8 

2004

Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). A science-based framework for responsible gambling: The Reno model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(3), 301-317. doi:10.1023/B:JOGS.0000040281.49444.e2

Brownsberger, W. N., Love, C. T., Doherty, P. L., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). Potential demand for substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 15(1), 37-70.

Shaffer, H. J. (2004). Foreward. In D. Derevensky, & Gupta, R. (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives (Vol. v-x). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Shaffer, H. J., & Albanese, M. J. (2004). Addiction’s defining characteristics. In R. H. Coombs (Eds.), Addiction Counseling Review: Preparing for Comprehensive Certification and Licensing Examinations. New York: Lhaska Press.

Shaffer, H. J., & Kidman, R. (2004). Gambling and the public health. In J. E. Grant, & Potenza, M.N. (Eds.), Pathological gambling: A clinical guide to treatment. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., & LaPlante, D. (2004). Laying the foundation for quantifying regional exposure to social phenomena: Considering the case of legalized gambling as a public health toxin. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 40-48. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.18.1.40

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & Stanton, M. V. (2004). The road less travelled: Moving from distribution to determinants in the study of gambling epidemiology. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 504-516.

Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A., LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., Donato, A. N., & Stanton, M. V. (2004). Toward a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(6), 367-374. doi:10.1080/10673220490905705

Vander Bilt, J., Dodge, H. H., Pandav, R., Shaffer, H. J., & Ganguli, M. (2004). Gambling participation and social support among older adults: A longitudinal community study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(4), 373-389. doi:10.1007/s10899-004-4580-0

2003

Albanese, M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2003). Treatment considerations in patients with addictions. Primary Psychiatry, 10(9), 55-60.

LaBrie, R. A., Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Correlates of college student gambling in the United States. Journal of American College Health, 52(2), 53-62. doi:10.1080/07448480309595725

Shaffer, H. J. (2003). A critical view of pathological gambling and addiction: Comorbidity makes for syndromes and other strange bedfellows. In G. Reith (Ed.), Gambling: Who wins? Who loses? (pp. 175-190). New York: Prometheus Book.

Shaffer, H. J., & Kidman, R. (2003). Shifting perspectives on gambling and addiction. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(1), 1-6.

Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., Vander Bilt, J., & George, E. (Eds.). (2003). Youth, gambling & society: Futures at stake. Reno: University

Wynne, H. J., & Shaffer, H. J. (2003). The socioeconomic impact of gambling: The Whistler Symposium. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(2), 111-121.

2002

Shaffer, H. J. (2002). Is computer addiction a unique psychiatric disorder? Psychiatric Times, XIX(4), 35-36.

Shaffer, H. J., & Eber, G. B. (2002). Temporal progression of cocaine dependence symptoms in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction, 97(5), 543-554.

Shaffer, H. J., Freed, C. R., & Healea, D. (2002). Gambling disorders among homeless persons with substance use disorders seeking treatment at a community center. Psychiatric Services, 53(9), 1112-1117. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.53.9.1112

Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2002). The natural history of gambling and drinking problems among casino employees. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 142(4), 405-424. doi:10.1080/00224540209603909

Shaffer, H. J., & Korn, D. A. (2002). Gambling and related mental disorders: A public health analysis. Annual Review of Public Health, 23, 171-212. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.23.100901.140532

2001

Shaffer, H. J., Dickerson, M., Derevensky, J., Winters, K., George, E., Karlins, M., & Bethune, W. (2001). Considering the ethics of public claims: An appeal for scientific maturity. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17(1), 1-4.

Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 168-172.

Shaffer, H. J., & Simoneau, G. (2001). Reducing resistance and denial by exercising ambivalence during the treatment of addiction. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20(1), 99-105.

2000 and Before

Eber, G. B., & Shaffer, H. J. (2000). Trends in bio-behavioral gambling studies research: Quantifying citations. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(4), 461-467.

Hall, M. N., Amodeo, M., Shaffer, H. J., & Vander Bilt, J. (2000). Social workers employed in substance abuse treatment agencies: a training needs assessment. Social Work, 45(2), 141-155.

Lambert, C. (2000). Deep Cravings. Harvard Magazine, 60-68.

Shaffer, H. J. (2000). Addictive personality. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology (Fourth ed., Vol. 1). Washington DC & New York: American Psychological Association & Oxford University Press.

Shaffer, H. J., Eber, G. B., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (2000). Smoking behavior among casino employees: Self-report validation using plasma cotinine. Addictive Behaviors, 25(5), 693-704.

Shaffer, H. J., Forman, D. P., Scanlan, K. M., & Smith, F. (2000). Awareness of gambling-related problems, policies and educational programs among high school and college administrators. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(1), 93-101. 

Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (2000). “Computer addiction”: A critical consideration. American Journal Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 162-168. 

Knight, J. R., Shrier, L. A., Bravender, T. D., Farrell, M., Vander Bilt, J., & Shaffer, H. J. (1999). A new brief screen for adolescent substance abuse. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153(6), 591-596.

Korn, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (1999). Gambling and the health of the public: Adopting a public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15(4), 289-365.

Shaffer, H. J. (1999). Addiction and gambling disorders: On matters of measurement and validity. The Behavioral Measurement Letter, 6(1), 2-6.

Shaffer, H. J. (1999). On the nature and meaning of addiction. National Forum: The Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 79(4), 9-14.

Shaffer, H. J. (1999). Strange bedfellows: a critical view of pathological gambling and addiction. Addiction, 94(10), 1445-1448.

Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A research synthesis. American Journal Public Health, 89(9), 1369-1376.

Shaffer, H. J., Vander Bilt, J., & Hall, M. N. (1999). Gambling, drinking, smoking and other health risk activities among casino employees. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36(3), 365-378.

Hall, M. N., Shaffer, H. J., & Vander Bilt, J. (1997). Measuring substance abuse treatment provider training needs: Developing an index of training need. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(6), 593-606.

Shaffer, H. J. (1997). Gambling research and science: Toward a mature relationship. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13(4), 275-278.

Shaffer, H. J. (1997). The most important unresolved issue in the addictions: Conceptual chaos. Substance Use & Misuse, 32(11), 1573-1580.

Shaffer, H. J. (1997). The psychology of stage change. In J. H. Lowinson & P. Ruiz & R. B. Millman & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A Comprehensive textbook (Third ed., pp. 100-106). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Shaffer, H. J., LaSalvia, T. A., & Stein, J. P. (1997). Comparing Hatha yoga with dynamic group psychotherapy for enhancing methadone maintenance treatment: A randomized clinical trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 3(4), 57-66.

Vander Bilt, J., Hall, M. N., Shaffer, H. J., & Higgins-Biddle, J. C. (1997). Assessing substance abuse treatment provider training needs: Screening skills. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(2), 163-171.

Shaffer, H. J. (1996). Understanding the means and objects of addiction: Technology, the Internet, and gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), 461-469. doi:10.1007/BF01539189

Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (1996). Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(2), 193-214. doi:10.1007/BF01539174

Silk, A., & Shaffer, H. (1996). Dysthymia, depression, and a treatment dilemma in a patient with polysubstance abuse. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 3, 279-284.

Shaffer, H. J., & Robbins, M. (1995). Psychotherapy for addictive behavior: A stage-change approach to meaning making. In A. M. Washton (Ed.), Psychotherapy and Substance Abuse: A Practitioner’s Handbook (pp. 103-123). New York: Guilford.

Shaffer, H. J. (1994). Considering two models of excessive sexual behaviors: Addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 1(1), 6-18.

Shaffer, H. J. (1994). Denial, ambivalence, and countertransferential hate. In J. D. Levin, & Weiss, R.H. (Eds.), The Dynamics and Treatment of Alcoholism: Essential Papers (pp. 421-437). Northdale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R., Scanlan, K. M., & Cummings, T. N. (1994). Pathological gambling among adolescents: Massachusetts Gambling Screen (MAGS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 10(4), 339-362. doi:10.1007/BF02104901

Shaffer, H. J. (1992). The psychology of stage change: The transition from addiction to recovery. In J. H. Lowinson & P. Ruiz & R. B. Millman & J. G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook (Second ed., pp. 100-105). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Shaffer, H. J., & LaSalvia, T. A. (1992). Patterns of substance use among methadone maintenance patients. Indicators of outcome. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9, 143-147.

Shaffer, H. J. (1991). Toward an epistemology of “addictive disease”. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 9(3), 269-286.

Shaffer, H. J., & Robbins, M. (1991). Manufacturing multiple meanings of addiction: Time-limited realities. Contemporary Family Therapy,13, 387-404.

Shaffer, H. J. (1990). Addictive disease in the nineties: Lessons from the emperor. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 4(1), 57-64.

Zinberg, N. E., & Shaffer, H. J. (1990). Essential factors of a rational policy on intoxicant use. The Journal of Drug Issues, 20(4), 619-627.

Shaffer, H. J., & Jones, S. B. (1989). Quitting cocaine: The struggle against impulse. Lexington, MA.: Lexington Books.

Shaffer, H. J., Stein, S., Gambino, B., & Cummings, T. N. (Eds.). (1989). Compulsive Gambling: Theory, Research & Practice. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Shaffer, H. J., & Costikyan, N. S. (1988). Cocaine psychosis and AIDS: A contemporary diagnostic dilemma. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,5(1), 9-12.

Shaffer, H. J. (1987). Concept crises and the addictions: A philosophy of science perspective. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 3, 285-296.

Shaffer, H. J. (1987). The epistemology of “addictive disease”: The Lincoln-Douglas debate. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,4(2), 103-113.

Shaffer, H. J. (1986). Assessment of addictive disorders: The use of clinical reflection and hypotheses testing. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9(3), 385-398.

Shaffer, H. J. (1986). Conceptual crises and the addictions: A philosophy of science perspective. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 3, 285-296.

Shaffer, H. J., & Zinberg, N. E. (1985). The social psychology of intoxicant use: The natural history of social settings and social control. Bulletin of the Society of Psychologists in the Addictive Behaviors, 4, 49-55.

Shaffer, H. J., & Burglass, M. E. (Eds.). (1981). Classic Contributions in the Addictions. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Reports

Division on Addiction. (2016). Summary analysis of the Plainridge Park Casino GameSense program activities & visitor survey: December 1, 2015 – May 31, 2016. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital.

Division on Addiction. (2013). A benchmark study for monitoring exposure to new gambling opportunities: Final report. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital.

Emerson, P. V. D., Andes, S., Balley, E. A., Bernhard, B., Buhrow, W., Dittrick-Nathan, K., Doyle, A. M., Eadline, M. C., Johnson, G., Ketcham, P. L., King, C., Martin, R. J., Morgan, S. J., Reilly, C., Shaffer, H. J., Travla, R., & Wanner, K. (2009). A Call to Action. Addressing College Gambling: Recommendations for Science-Based Policies and Programs. A Report of the Task Force on College Gambling Policies. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School and Washington, DC: National Center for Responsible Gaming.

LaPlante, D. A., Kleschinsky, J. H., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2009). Play Responsibly Independent Measurement & Evaluation (PRIME): Venetian & Palazzo, Las Vegas. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital.

Kleschinsky, J. H., Kaplan, S. A., Nelson, S. E., LaBrie, R. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2008). The Missouri Voluntary Exclusion Program: Participant Experience Across 10 Years. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School.

Nelson, S. E., Maurice, I. R., Shaffer, H. J. (2008). St. Francis House Moving Ahead Program (MAP): Phase II report. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital.

Nelson, S. E., Maurice, I. R., Shaffer, H. J. (2008). St. Francis House Moving Ahead Program (MAP): Phase I report. Boston, MA: Division on Addiction, Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital.

Blaszcynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Nower, L., & Shaffer, H.J. (2005) Informed choice and gambling: principles for consumer protection. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Gaming Council.

Korn, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). Practice Guidelines for Treating Gambling-related Problems. Massachusetts Department of Public Health.

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Kidman, R. C., & Nelson, S. E. (2004). The Iowa Department of Public Health Gambling Treatment Services: Follow-up study(Technical Report #20304-200). Boston: Harvard Medical School.

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., & Nelson, S. B. (2004). Disordered gambling in Missouri: Regional differences in the need for treatment. Phase I Report prepared for: The Greater Kansas City Community Foundation in partial fulfillment of the research grant “Evaluation Services with Regard to the Regional Impact of Compulsive Gambling” supported by the Port Authority Problem Gambling Fund.

Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., & Kidman, R. C. (2002). The Iowa Department of Public Health Gambling Treatment Services: Four years of evidence (Technical Report #101102-200). Boston: Harvard Medical School.

Shaffer, H., Hall, M., Vander Bilt, J. (1997). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A meta-analysis. Boston: Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College.

North American think tank on youth gambling issues. Final Report. April 1995.